Atopic Dermatitis


AD is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by persistent itch, embarrassing eczematous lesions, and frequent skin infections.3,4 But persistent itch is much more than just an irritating sensation—it is the most burdensome symptom for patients with AD and can significantly disrupt their daily activities, sleep, and psychological well-being.4,5

The signs and symptoms of AD are disrupting the lives of patients

A square with text: "79% of patients with AD and their caregivers reported that itch was among their top 3 most problematic symptoms4*"
A square with text: "39% of adults with AD reported that the physical appearance of their skin disease caused them to avoid social interaction6†"
A square with text: "33%-90% of adults with AD reported experiencing sleep disturbance7‡"
A square with text: "Patients with AD were 44% more likely to exhibit suicidal ideation compared to those without AD8§"

*Results were based on an online 32-item survey of 1508 patients with AD and their caregivers  from the United States and 57 other countries. Survey respondents were asked which 3 symptoms have been the most problematic for the patient with AD.4

Results were based on a cross-sectional, population-based study of 602 adults with AD in the United States. The objective of the study was to assess the patient burden of AD in the United States population.6

Results were based on a clinical review of studies on sleep disturbance experienced by adults with AD, as well as its underlying mechanisms.7

§Results were based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of 15 studies that assessed 310,681 patients with AD around the world. The review included observational studies that evaluated suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide among patients with AD.8

AD is driven by both inflammatory and neural mechanisms

Current understanding of AD pathophysiology reveals that it is a neuroimmune-mediated disease, driven by2,9,10:

An icon that represents "itch": A circle surrounding 3 diagonal lines.
An icon with 4 concentric circles that represents "inflammation."
An icon that represents "skin barrier dysfunction": An arrow puncturing a wavy line.
Skin barrier dysfunction

IL-31 is at center of AD pathogenesis


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There are still unmet needs in AD

AD is a chronic and extremely heterogeneous disease. Despite currently available treatment options, some patients with AD are still experiencing adverse events and a lack of disease control.14,15


Useful resources

The images in this material are not of actual patients with AD or prurigo nodularis (PN). They were created based on informed Galderma insights. AD and prurigo nodularis (PN) can manifest in individuals differently. 

1. Nemmer JM, Kuchner M, Datsi A, et al. Interleukin-31 signaling bridges the gap between immune cells, the nervous system and epithelial tissues. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021;8:639097. doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.639097 2. Datsi A, Steinhoff M, Ahmad F, Alam M, Buddenkotte J. Interleukin-31: the "itchy" cytokine in inflammation and therapy. Allergy. 2021;76(10):2982-2997. doi:10.1111/all.14791 3. Langan SM, Irvine AD, Weidinger S. Atopic dermatitis. Lancet. 2020;396(10247):345-360. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31286-1 4. McCleary KK. More than skin deep: understanding the lived experience of eczema. March 18, 2020. Accessed December 15, 2021. 5. Legat FJ. Itch in atopic dermatitis—what is new? Front Med (Lausanne). 2021;8:644760. doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.644760 6. Silverberg JI, Gelfand JM, Margolis DJ, et al. Patient burden and quality of life in atopic dermatitis in US adults: a population-based cross-sectional study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018;121(3):340-347. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2018.07.006 7. Bawany F, Northcott CA, Beck LA, Pigeon WR. Sleep disturbances and atopic dermatitis: relationships, methods for assessment, and therapies. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021;9(4):1488-1500. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2020.12.007 8. Sandhu JK, Wu KK, Bui TL, Armstrong AW. Association between atopic dermatitis and suicidality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol. 2019;155(2):178-187. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.4566 9. Dubin C, Del Duca E, Guttman-Yassky E. The IL-4, IL-13 and IL-31 pathways in atopic dermatitis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2021;17(8):835-852. doi:10.1080/1744666X.2021.1940962 10. Yosipovitch G, Berger T, Fassett MS. Neuroimmune interactions in chronic itch of atopic dermatitis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2020;34(2):239-250. doi:10.1111/jdv.15973 11. Neis MM, Peters B, Dreuw A, et al. Enhanced expression levels of IL-31 correlate with IL-4 and IL-13 in atopic and allergic contact dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118(4):930-937. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.07.015 12. Kim J, Kim BE, Leung DYM. Pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis: clinical implications. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2019;40(2):84-92. doi:10.2500/aap.2019.40.4202 13. Renert-Yuval Y, Guttman-Yassky E. New treatments for atopic dermatitis targeting beyond IL-4/IL-13 cytokines. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2020;124(1):28-35. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2019.10.005 14. Pescitelli L, Rosi E, Ricceri F, Pimpinelli N, Prignano F. Novel therapeutic approaches and targets for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2021;22(1):73-84. doi:10.2174/1389201021666200611112755 15. Cork MJ, Danby SG, Ogg GS. Atopic dermatitis epidemiology and unmet need in the United Kingdom. J Dermatolog Treat. 2020;31(8):801-809. doi:10.1080/09546634.2019.1655137


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